Glossary of Forensic Nursing Terms

A

Abandonment


Willful desertion of an elderly (or vulnerable adult) person by a caregiver. Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Anti-Semitism


Hostility toward or prejudice against Jews or Judaism. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Anger Rapist


Displaces anger, rage, hatred onto a victim. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Alzheimer's Disease


Alzheimer disease: a slowly progressive disease of the brain characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Alien


Term used in the Mann Act to denote foreign-born persons. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Adjudication


Includes all formal and informal steps within the criminal process. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN)


“APRNs include nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, nurse anesthetists, and nurse midwives, and all play a pivotal role in the future of health care. APRNs are often primary care providers and are at the forefront of providing preventive care services to the public.

APRNs treat and diagnose illnesses, advise the public on health issues, manage chronic disease, and engage in continuous education to remain ahead of any technological, methodological, or other developments in the field. APRNs hold at least a Master’s degree, in addition to the initial nursing education and licensing required for all Registered Nurses (RNs).”

Reference: American Nurses Association. (2018). Advanced practice registered nurse. Retrieved from:https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/workforce/what-is-nursing/aprn/





B

Battered Woman Syndrome


The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on victims. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Burglary


Unlawful entry of a residence, industry, or business, with or without force, with the intent to commit a larceny. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Bullying


A form of habitual aggressive behavior that is hurtful and deliberate. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Blitz Rape


Sudden, out of the blue, physical attack. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Battered Woman Syndrome Defense


An extension of self-defense laws that appreciates battered women’s perceptions of risk and the possibility of escape. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





D

Dark Figure of Crime


Term used by criminologists and sociologists to describe the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Domestic Violence


Incidents of interspousal physical or emotional abuse perpetuated by one of the spouses upon the other spouse. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Domestic Elder Abuse


​Mistreatment committed by a person who shares a special relationship with the elder (a spouse, sibling, child, friend or caregiver). Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Disclosure


The communication of an act of abuse. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Direct Threat


Identifies a specific act against a specific target. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Developmental Traumatology


The systemic investigation of the psychiatric and psychobiological impact of overwhelming and chronic interpersonal violence on the developing child. This relatively new area of study synthesizes knowledge from an array of scientific fields, including developmental psychopathology, developmental neuroscience, and stress and trauma research. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Developmental Disability


A cognitive, emotional, or physical impairment, especially one related to abnormal sensory or motor development, that appears in infancy or childhood and involves a failure or delay in progressing through the normal developmental stages of childhood. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Dementia


A condition in which mem or loss has progressed to such a point that normal independent functioning is impossible and affected individuals can no longer successfully manage their finances or provide for their own basic needed.relationship with the elder (a spouse, sibling, child, friend or caregiver). Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Defendant


A person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused.subsequent intrapsychic and interpersonal recovery. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





E

Elder Abuse


An intentional act, or failure to act, by a caregiver or another person in a relationship involving an expectation of trust that causes or creaets a risk of harm to an older adult (physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or psychological, neglect, financial abuse or exploitation). Reference: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/elderabuse




Exploitation


Fraudulent or otherwise illegal, unauthorized or improper act or process that uses the resources of an individual for monetary or personal profit, gain or benefit of another. Reference: Hall, J.E., Karch, D.L. & Crosby, A.E. (2016). Elder Abuse Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Core Data Elements for Use in Elder Abuse Surveillance Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA:. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.




Erotomania


A syndrome of delusional loving. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




English Common Law


The traditional, unwritten law of England that forms the basis of modern statutes. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Emotional or Psychological Neglect


Purposeful interaction with the intent to inflict anguish, distress, or pain, including verbal assaults, insults, threats or humiliation. Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Elder Abuse Surveillance


Uniform Definitions and Recommended Core Data Elements: suggested definitions and recommended data to collect with the goal of obtaining accurate and reliable epidemiological estimates. Reference: Hall, J.E., Karch, D.L. & Crosby, A.E. (2016). Elder Abuse Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Core Data Elements for Use in Elder Abuse Surveillance Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA:. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.





F

Fetal Abduction


The abduction (or "kidnapping") of a fetus by way of criminal removal of the fetus form the uterus of the pregnant mother by the criminal abductor (or "kidnapper"). ​ Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Forensic Toxicology


Subspecialty in which toxicological analysis is utilized to facilitate medical intervention, diagnosis or treatment and plays a role in the criminal justice system. Reference: Kerrigan, S. & Goldberger, B.A. 2011. Forensic toxicology. In V. Lynch & Duval, J.B. (Eds.), Forensic Nursing Science (2nd ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby Inc.




Forensic Nursing


The application of the nursing process to public or legal proceedings and the application of forensic health care in the scientific investigation of trauma and/or death related to abuse, violence, criminal activity, liability, and accidents. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Forensic Epidemiology


The study of health problems resulting from suspicions or evidence of possible intentional acts or criminal behavior; utilization of epidemiological methods in support of ongoing criminal investigations. References: 1. Forensic epidemiology (2007). Kentucky Law Enforcement. Fall, (pp. 30-34). 2. Koehler, S.A. & Brown, P.A. (2009). Foundations of Forensic Epidemiology: Medical Examiner/Coroner Perspective. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis Group/CRC Press.




Financial Abuse


The illegal or improper use of an elderly person’s money, funds, assets, or property, includes actions such as deceiving or forcing an elder to sign legal documents (e.g. wills), forging an elder’s signature on legal documents, misusing or stealing an elder’s possessions or money. This is also known as "material exploitation" or "financial exploitation." Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Fiduciary


A business or person who may act for another with total trust, good faith, and honesty and who has the complete confidence and trust of that person. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Fetal Rights


The rights of any unborn human feus, which is generally a developing human from roughly 8 weeks after conception to birth. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Fetal Homicide


Also referred to as "feticide," is an act that causes the death of a fetus. Reference: Kerrigan, S. & Goldberger, B.A. 2011. Forensic toxicology. In V. Lynch & Duval, J.B. (Eds.), Forensic Nursing Science (2nd ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby Inc.




Feticide


An act that causes the death of a fetus. Reference: Kerrigan, S. & Goldberger, B.A. 2011. Forensic toxicology. In V. Lynch & Duval, J.B. (Eds.), Forensic Nursing Science (2nd ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier/Mosby Inc.




Financial Exploitation


The illegal or improper use of an elderly person’s money, funds, assets, or property, includes actions such as deceiving or forcing an elder to sign legal documents (e.g. wills), forging an elder’s signature on legal documents, misusing or stealing an elder’s possessions or money. This is also known as "material exploitation" or "financial abuse." Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Forensic Victimology


The scientific study of the psychological effects of crime and the relationship between victims and their offenders. Forensic victimiology is an important tool for investigating and solving cold cases. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Forensic Nurse Death Investigator (FNDI)


A subspecialty of forensic nursing where nurses gather information to assess the scene and decedent, plan for evidence collection, notify the family and assist with the referral of additional resources for the family. The FNDI obtains death reports, responds to scenes, works with families, and obtains medical records and other relevant information that will assist the medical examiner or coroner in determining the manner and cause of death.

Reference: Mitchell, S.A. & Drake, S.A. (2016). Death Investigation, in Amar, A. & Sekula, K. A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing: Incorporating Forensic Principles into Nursing Practice, Indianapolis, STTI.




Forensic Nurse Examiner (FNE)


The application of forensic aspects of health care combined with the biopsychosocial education of the Registered Nurse in the scientific investigation and treatment of trauma, and/or death of victims and perpetrators of violence, criminal activity, and traumatic accidents within the clinical community. FNE’s conduct medical-forensic examinations, acting as a bridge to the criminal justice system and forensic science practitioners.

“FNE” is a title, not a certification.

Reference: Lynch, V. (2011). Forensic nurse examiners in death investigation. Forensic Nursing Science (2nd ed.). Elsevier/Mosby: St. Louis.




Forensic Psychiatric Nurse


A Registered Nurse who assesses and evaluates perpetrators for the risk of violence and their culpability, provides psychiatric assessment and makes recommendations for the treatment of perpetrators, and provides expert witness testimony.

Reference: Kent-Wilkinson, A.E. (2010). Forensic psychiatric/mental health nursing: Responsive to social need. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 31(6), 425-431.





G

Genocide


Systematic murder of an entire political, cultural, or religious group. [2] Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Grand Jury


A jury convened to inquire into accusations of crime and to evaluate the grounds for indictments. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





H

Hate Crime


Criminal conduct motivated in whole or in part by a preformed negative opinion or attitude toward a group based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or disability. ​ Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Homicide


The intentional and sometimes unintentional or accidental killing of another person. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Home Invasion


Burglary of a dwelling while the residents are at home. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Hierarchy Rule


This rule requires counting only the highest offense and ignoring all others; it applies only to the crime reporting process and does not affect the number of charges for which the defendant may be prosecuted in the courts. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Hate Speech


Words used as weapons to ambush, terrorize, wound, humiliate, and degrade members of an identified group. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





I

Identity Theft


Use of a person’s identifying information, including name, Social Security number, or credit card number, without permission, to commit fraud or other crimes. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Islamophobia:


Hostility toward or prejudice against Muslims. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Intimate Partner Violence


Any behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological, or sexual harm. Reference: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/elderabuse




Internet Fraud


Deception conducted through the internet for the purpose of financial gain. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Institutional Abuse


Maltreatment occurring in residential facilities (nursing home, assisted living facility, group home, board and care facility, foster home, etc..). The perpetrators of this type of abuse are usually someone with a legal or contractual obligation to provide some element of care or protection. Islamophobia: hostility toward or prejudice against Muslims. [2] Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Infant Abduction


The "kidnapping" or abduction of an infant. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Indirect Threat


Vague, unclear, and ambiguous, but are perceived as threats. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Inicidence


The number of times something occurs in a single or specified place or among a specified population during a particular period of time. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Incest


Engaging in one or more sex acts with a descendent by blood or adoption. Important Note: The legal definition of "incest" may vary from state to state. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





J

Just World Theory


Tendency of people to attribute blame to victims of crime to retain a sense that the world is safe. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





K

K - No Terms


No Terms





L

Larceny (or theft)


Unlawful taking (or attempted taking) of property other than a motor vehicle from the possession of another by stealth with intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property. Reference: arnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Lifestyle Routine Activities Theory


Certain personal characteristics and lifestyle activities increase or decrease an individual’s risk of victimization. Reference: arnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Learned Helplessness


A cognitive state in which a victim no longer believes that any action can change an aversive situation. Reference: arnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





M

Mail Fraud


Willful use of the national mail services to defraud or obtain money or property by means of false pretenses, representations, or promises. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Murder


A subcategory of homicide, which also includes lawful taking of human life. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Munchausen By Proxy Syndrome


Munchausen syndrome: a disorder in which a person presents repeatedly to hospitals with symptoms and sign (often simulated) suggestive of a serious illness. Reference: Black’s Medical Dictionary. 43rd edition. (2013). H & C Black Publishers Ltd.




Mistreatment


Intentional actions that cause harm or create serious risk of harm, intended or not, to a vulnerable person by a caregiver or other person who stands in a trust relationship; failure by a caregiver to satisfy the basic needs of a vulnerable person. Hall, J.E., Karch, D.L. & Crosby, A.E. (2016). Elder Abuse Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Core Data Elements for Use in Elder Abuse Surveillance Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA:. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.




​Mechanism of Injury


Method by which trauma to the skin, muscles, organs and bones occur, how much force was applied and to what part of the body (vehicle-pedestrian collision, ejection from vehicle, fall). Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Medically Fragile


Individuals who have medically intensive needs that usually result in chronic health-related dependence. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Marital Rape


Nonconsensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim’s spouse. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Manner of Death


The category in which the death falls, determined from the autopsy examination, scene investigation, police reports and postmortem laboratory studies. (natural, homicide, su8icide, accident, undetermined). Reference: Mitchell, S.A., Drake, S.A. (2016). Death investigation. In A. Amar & L. K. Sekula (Eds.), A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing: Incorporating Forensic Principles into Nursing Practice, (p. 247). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.




Maltreatment


Intentional actions that cause harm or create serious risk of harm, intended or not, to a vulnerable person by a caregiver or other person who stands in a trust relationship; failure by a caregiver to satisfy the basic needs of a vulnerable person. Hall, J.E., Karch, D.L. & Crosby, A.E. (2016). Elder Abuse Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Core Data Elements for Use in Elder Abuse Surveillance Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA:. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.




Material Exploitation


The illegal or improper use of an elderly person’s money, funds, assets, or property, includes actions such as deceiving or forcing an elder to sign legal documents (e.g. wills), forging an elder’s signature on legal documents, misusing or stealing an elder’s possessions or money. This is also known as "financial exploitation" or "financial abuse." Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html





N

National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)


A series of surveys, previously called the National Crime Survey, which collect data on personal and household victimization since 1973. ​ Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Nursing


The treatment of human responses to actual or potential health problems. Reference: American Nurses Association. (2009). Forensic Nursing: Scope & Standards of Practice. Silver Spring, MD: Nursesbooks.org.




Neglect


Failure or refusal of the caregiver to provide necessities, such as shelter, food, water, clothing, personal hygiene, medicine, access to medical care or a safe environment [4] Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA)


Established in 1975 as a victim services, developing new programs, and supporting passage of victims’ rights legislation.
Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)


A more delated version of the Uniform Crime Reporting program (UCR). Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





O

Obsessional Harassment


Harassment causing fear that originated from the obsession of one individual with another individual who is uninterested in the relationship. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





P

Pattern Evidence


Evidence displayed in a specific type of pattern (ie: blood spatter, patterned injuries, etc.). me. Reference: Sekula, L.K. (2016). Forensic documentation and testimony. In A. Amar & L. K. Sekula (Eds.), A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing: Incorporating Forensic Principles into Nursing Practice, (pp. 288- 290). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.




Peace Bond


An order from a criminal court that restrains one person from bothering or threatening another. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Psychological or Emotional Neglect


Purposeful interaction with the intent to inflict anguish, distress, or pain, including verbal assaults, insults, threats or humiliation. Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Physical Abuse


Use of physical force or violence that results in pain and/or injury and/or distress, including slapping, hitting, biting, kicking, pushing, shoving, shaking, pinching, burning, striking with an object, inappropriate use of drugs and/or physical restraints, force feeding, and/or using physical "punishment." Reference: Department of Health and Human Services. National Center on Elder Abuse. (2015). Types of abuse. Retrieved 9/17/2018 from http://ncea.acl.gov/FAQ/index.html




Physical Bullying


Pushing, hitting, tripping, spitting at, and physical beating. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Positivistic


Derives knowledge from the scientific method. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)


An anxiety disorder that develops in some individuals who have had a major traumatic experience. PTSD is characterized by intrusive thoughts and images and heightened arousal. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Power of Attorney


Authority granted by one person to another to empower the grantee to make financial and health care decisions on the grantor’s behalf. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Prevalence


How often something occurs during a specified period of time. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Pre-Trial Conference


Conference held before the trial begins to bring the parties together to outline discovery proceedings and to define the issues. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Primary Victimization


The act of targeting a victim of abuse. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Property Crime


The object of theft-type of offenses is taking of money or property, without force or threat of force against the victim. Reference: U.S. Department of Justice. (2013). Crime in the U.S. [Data file]. Retrieved from https://ucr.fbi.gov




Protection Order


An order made when the court makes a final decision and is satisfied that domestic and family violence has occurred and is likely to occur again. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Psychiatric Gating


Certification of a violent individual under provincial mental health legislation and subsequent placement in an inpatient facilty. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Psychological Abuse


A pattern of behavior when an individual attempt to dehumanize or intimidate through verbal or nonverbal acts (insulting, continuous criticism, threats to harm, damaging property, blaming, gas lighting, punishing). Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





Q

Q - No Terms


No Terms





R

Racial Profiling


Any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security, or public protection that relies on stereotypes about race, color, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin (or a combination of these) rather than on reasonable suspicion to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or different treatment. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Robbery


Unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another by force or threat of force. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Restraining Order


An order issued after the aggrieved party appears before a judge that tells one person to stop harassing or harming another person. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Recidivism


The repeating of crimes by the offender. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Rape


Penetration, however slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without consent. Important Note: The legal definition of "rape" is defined differently in each state. ​ Reference: U.S. Department of Justice. (2013). Crime in the U.S. [Data file]. Retrieved from https://ucr.fbi.gov





T

Telephone Hacking


Illegal access to a telephone network for free phone calls or to obtain personal information. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Transient Evidence


Physical evidence which is temporary in nature and can be lost, changed, degraded (e.g. odor, moisture, temperature, imprints). Reference: Sekula, L.K. (2016). Forensic documentation and testimony. In A. Amar & L. K. Sekula (Eds.), A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing: Incorporating Forensic Principles into Nursing Practice, (pp. 288- 290). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.




Transfer Evidence


Evidence that results from two surfaces coming in contact with each other (blood from one person left on another person, fibers from one person’s clothing left on a victim). Reference: Sekula, L.K. (2016). Forensic documentation and testimony. In A. Amar & L. K. Sekula (Eds.), A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing: Incorporating Forensic Principles into Nursing Practice, (pp. 288- 290). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.




Trauma-Informed Care


Framework that uses empowerment and a strength-based model to respond to the effects of trauma on an individual; a framework that analyzes the effect of the environment of trauma survivors and guides the response of the organizations and individuals providing care in the organization. Reference: Hopper, E.K., Bassuk, E.L. & Oliver, J. (2010). Shelter from the storm: Trauma-informed care in homelessness services settings. The Open Health Services and Policy Journal, 3(2), 80-100.




Throwaways


Children who have been told to leave the household, are refused reentry into their home after running away, are not sought by parents or others when they run away or are abandoned or deserted. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Threat


Expression of intent to do harm or to act out violently against someone or something. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Third-Party Liability


Responsibility held by a person or organization that did not commit the offense but may have contributed to or facilitated the offense. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Tertiary Victimization


Diffuse victimization that extends to the community at large. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Theft


Taking of a person’s property without the permission of the property owner or possessor of that property. ​ Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Testimonial Evidence


Statements made under oath, in court by a witness and direct evidence (eyewitness accounts, medical documentation made while caring for a patient in a clinical setting). Reference: Sekula, L.K. (2016). Forensic documentation and testimony. In A. Amar & L. K. Sekula (Eds.), A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing: Incorporating Forensic Principles into Nursing Practice, (pp. 288- 290). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.




Terrorism


Systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion.environment of trauma survivors and guides the response of the organizations and individuals providing care in the organization. Reference: Hopper, E.K., Bassuk, E.L. & Oliver, J. (2010). Shelter from the storm: Trauma-informed care in homelessness services settings. The Open Health Services and Policy Journal, 3(2), 80-100.




​Traumatic Grief


Grief: grief associated with traumatic loss, such as murder. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





U

Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR)


Report published by the Federal Bureau of Investigation on the number of violent crimes and property crimes reported to law enforcement, and the data regarding clearance of these offenses. Expanded data collected by the FBI includes auxiliary information (time of day) as well as trends in crime volume and crime rate per 100,00 inhabitants Expanded homicide data includes information about weapon use, victims, offenders and circumstances surrounding homicides. Reference: U.S. Department of Justice. (2013). Crime in the U.S. [Data file]. Retrieved from https://ucr.fbi.gov





V

Veiled Threat


Strongly implies but does not explicitly threaten violence. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Victims of Crime Act (VOCA)


Established the crime victim’s fund that is supported by fines collected from persons who have been convicted of criminal offenses. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Victim’s Information and Notification Everyday (VINE) Program


Rnables victims of intimate partner violence to access court information. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Victimology


The study of the victim from a social-structured way of viewing crime and the law and the criminal and the victim. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Victim Impact Statement


A statement given by the victim(s) that details how the crime has affected him or her. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Victim


The person that is acted upon and usually adversely affected by and outside incident. In forensic nursing, the victim may be the client, the decedent, or perpetrator, the family, significant others, the suspect, the accused and/or falsely accused, the community and/or the public in general. References: 1. American Nurses Association. (2009). Forensic Nursing: Scope & Standards of Practice. Silver Spring, MD: Nursesbooks.org. 2. Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Verbal Bullying


Taunts, threats, name calling, and derogatory comments. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





W

White Supremacist


A person who believes White people are racially superior to others and should therefore dominate society. Wife battering: assault against a woman by her husband. Reference:Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Wife Battering


Assault against a woman by her spouse. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





X

Xenophobia


Fear and hatred of strangers or foreigners or of anything that is strange or foreign. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





Y

Youth Gang


A self-formed association of peers who have in common some sense of identity, some degree of permanence and organization, and an elevated level of involvement in delinquent or criminal activity. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





Z

Z - No Terms


No Terms





C

Cause of Death


The reason why a person died, such as from an injury or a disease process. Reference: Mitchell, S.A., Drake, S.A. (2016). Death investigation. In A. Amar & L. K. Sekula (Eds.), A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing: Incorporating Forensic Principles into Nursing Practice, (p. 247). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.




Celebrity Stalking


Harassment of a well-known figure who generally does not know the stalker. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Clearances


Closing of cases by law enforcement agencies within the UCR system either by arrest or by exceptional means. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Classical Criminology


A view that people have free will and the appropriate and timely punishment will deter crime. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Classic Mass Murder


One person operating in the one location at one period of time, which could be minutes or hours or even day. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Civil Justice System


A network of courts and legal processes that enforce, restore, or protect private and personal rights. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Child Trafficking


Abduction and sale of children. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Child Sexual Exploitation on the Internet


Use of internet to distribute or view child pornography. Use of the internet to contact children for the purposes of sexual abuse or exploitation Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Child Pornography


Obscene photographing, filming, or depiction of children for commercial purposes or for arousal of self, subject child, or viewing audience. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Child Maltreatment


Describes the four types of child mistreatment: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. In many cases children are the victims of more than one type of abuse. The abusers can be parents or other family members, caretakers such as teachers and babysitters, acquaintances (including other children), and (in rare instances) strangers. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Cleared by Exceptional Means


Category of case closure in the UCR system when formal charges are not placed against an alleged offender, because the offender is either dead, a victim refuses to cooperate, or extradition is denied. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Co-Victim


Immediate family, significant others, work associates, and close personal friends who had dealings with the deceased. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Conditional Evidence


Evidence observed at a scene which can be changed or moved over time (e.g. lights on or off, furniture moved, doors closed or open). Reference: Sekula, L.K. (2016). Forensic documentation and testimony. In A. Amar & L. K. Sekula (Eds.), A Practical Guide to Forensic Nursing: Incorporating Forensic Principles into Nursing Practice, (pp. 288- 290). Indianapolis, IN: Sigma Theta Tau International.




Computer Hacking


Unauthorized use of an information system or network by circumventing or bypassing the security mechanisms. Illegally accessing other people’s computer systems for destroying, disrupting or carrying out illegal activities on the network or in computer systems Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Complex Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)


Reactions experienced by survivors of prolonged abuse, which includes symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and personality changes Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Cold Case


A criminal investigation that had not been solved for at least 1 year and has been closed form further regular investigations. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Cognitively Impaired


A brain disorder in which thinking abilities are impaired. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Conditional Threat


A warning that a violent act will happen unless certain demands or terms are met. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Cyberterrorism


Any premeditated, politically motivated attack against electronic information or systems. The unauthorized use of computers and information technology to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Cyberstalking


Use of the internet to stalk another person. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Cybercrime


Crime committed using the Internet. This broad term includes attacks causing electronic commerce sites to lose money, stealing a person’s identity, selling contraband, stalking victims, or disrupting operations using malevolent programs. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Cyberbullying


Bullying through means of e-mail, instant message, text messages, blogs, cell phones, pagers, and web sites with the goal of tormenting, threatening, harassing, humiliating, or embarrassing a person Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Critical Criminology


Combines an analysis of the state with the lived experience of victims. This model included radical, Marxist, and feminist approaches. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Criminology


The study of the etiology of crime and the characteristics of the criminal. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Criminal Law


Concerned with actions that are harmful to society in which prosecution is pursued by the states, not he individual. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Criminal Charges


A formal accusation of having committed a criminal offense. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Crime Victim Rights


Eight rights of crime victims included in Section 3771 of Title 18 of the U.A. Code, Crimes, and Criminal Procedure. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Crime Victim


A person who had been directly and proximately harmed (physically, emotionally, or financially) as a result of the commission of an offense. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Credible Threat


Legal terms that indicates a clear threat that, to an outside observer, is a cause for concern of the safety of the victims. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Cost of Victimization


Health and medical costs, economic cost, and criminal justice costs. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Corporate Victimization


Classic white-collar crime involves personal gain at the expense of employers, the government, or clients (which can also be described as occupational crimes). Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Copyright Piracy


Unauthorized use or sale of copyrighted material. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Correctional Nursing


The practice and delivery of nursing care within the criminal justice system, including county jails, state and federal prisons, juvenile detention centers, and substance-abuse treatment centers. Central to this area of forensic nursing is the development of a therapeutic relationship with the inmate as a patient. The ability to differentiate the need for medical care vs the desire for secondary gain, the need for attention to personal security at all times, and balancing humanity and criminal behavior of the inmate are essential to the role of the correctional nurse. Increased autonomy and strong assessment skills are vital for nurses working in these settings.

References:

American Nurse Association. (2007). Corrections nursing: Scope & standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD.

Schoenly, L. (2013). Context of correctional nursing. In Essentials of Correctional Nursing, NY: Springer Publishing, LLC.





S

School Dynamics


Patterns of behavior, thinking, beliefs, customs, traditions, roles, and values that exist in a school’s culture. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Secondary Victimization


When violence affects impersonal victims, such as commercial establishments, churches, schools, and public transportation. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Self-Neglect


Inability of an individual, due to physical or mental impairment or diminished capacity, to perform essential self-care tasks that threatens his or her own safety or health. Reference: Hall, J.E., Karch, D.L. & Crosby, A.E. (2016). Elder Abuse Surveillance: Uniform Definitions and Recommended Core Data Elements for Use in Elder Abuse Surveillance Version 1.0. Atlanta, GA:. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.




Serial Murder


Two or more separate events in three or more separate locations with an emotional cooling-off period between homicides. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Sexual Assault


Any sexual act, attempt to obtain and sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic, or otherwise directed, against a person’s sexuality using coercion. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Sexual Coercion


Unwanted intercourse or any other sexual contact subsequent to the use of menacing verbal pressure or misuse of authority. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Sexual Sadist


An offender who finds pleasure and excitement in the suffering of his/her victim. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Sexually Violent Predator


Any person who has been convicted of or charged with a crime of sexual violence and who suffers from a mental abnormality or personality disorder that makes the person likely to engage in predatory acts of sexual violence if not confined in a secure facility. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Social Bullying


Rumors and behaviors aimed at deliberate social exclusion. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Spiritualistic Theories


Attribute victimization to the acts of gods, demons, cosmic forces, and other supernatural forces. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Spree Murder


A single event with two or more locations and no emotional cooling-off period between murders. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Stalking


Any form of harassment that causes the person being harassed to have a reasonable fear for his or her safety. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Standard


Authoritative statement enunciated and promogulated by the profession by which the quality of practice, service, or education can be judged.




Standards of Care


Authoritative statements that describe a competent level of nursing practice demonstrated through assessment, diagnosis, outcome identification, planning, implementation, and evaluation as appropriate to the practice setting.




Standards of Forensic Nursing Practice


Authoritative statement that describe a level of service or performance common to the profession of forensic nursing by which the quality of forensic nursing practice can be judged. Standards of practice include both standards of care are standards of professional practice. Reference: American Nurses Association. (2009). Forensic Nursing: Scope & Standards of Practice. Silver Spring, MD: Nursesbooks.org.




Standards of Professional Performance


Authoritative statesmen’s that describe a competent level of behavior in the progression role, including, activities related to quality of service, performance appraisal, education, collegiality, ethics, collaboration, research, and resource utilization. Reference: American Nurses Association. (2009). Forensic Nursing: Scope & Standards of Practice. Silver Spring, MD: Nursesbooks.org.




Standards of Professional Performance


Authoritative statesments that describe a competent level of behavior in the progression role, including, activities related to quality of service, performance appraisal, education, collegiality, ethics, collaboration, research, and resource utilization. Reference: American Nurses Association. (2009). Forensic Nursing: Scope & Standards of Practice. Silver Spring, MD: Nursesbooks.org.




Stockholm Syndrome


Dramatic and unexpected realignment of affection to the protective bond between hostage and captor and to the feelings of distrust and hospitality on the part of the victim toward authority. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Statutory Rape


A generic term that refers to nonforcible sexual activity with a person under the age of consent and by and adult age 18 years or older. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.




Strangulation


The obstruction of blood vessels and/or airflow in the neck resulting in asphyxia. Reference: Training Institute on Strangulation Prevention. ( 2018). Retrieved from https://www.strangulationtraininginstitute.com




Suicide Bomber


The targeted use of self-destructing human beings against civilians. Reference: Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (2011). Family violence across the lifespan (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA.





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